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Since the crime explosion of the 1960s, the prison population in the United States has multiplied fivefold, to one prisoner for every hundred adults--a rate unprecedented in American history and unmatched anywhere in the world. Even as the prisoner head count continues to rise, crime has stopped falling, and poor people and minorities still bear the brunt of both crime and punishment. When Brute Force Fails explains how we got into the current trap and how we can get out of it: to cut both crime and the prison population in half within a decade. Mark Kleiman demonstrates that simply locking up more people for lengthier terms is no longer a workable crime-control strategy. But, says Kleiman, there has been a revolution--largely unnoticed by the press--in controlling crime by means other than brute-force incarceration: substituting swiftness and certainty of punishment for randomized severity, concentrating enforcement resources rather than dispersing them, communicating specific threats of punishment to specific offenders, and enforcing probation and parole conditions to make community corrections a genuine alternative to incarceration. As Kleiman shows, "zero tolerance" is nonsense: there are always more offenses than there is punishment capacity. But, it is possible--and essential--to create focused zero tolerance, by clearly specifying the rules and then delivering the promised sanctions every time the rules are broken. Brute-force crime control has been a costly mistake, both socially and financially. Now that we know how to do better, it would be immoral not to put that knowledge to work.

Product Details :

Genre Book : Law
Author Book : Mark Kleiman
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release Book : 2009
Download Book : 231 Pages
ISBN-10 : 9780691142081


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Since the crime explosion of the 1960s, the prison population in the United States has multiplied fivefold, to one prisoner for every hundred adults--a rate unprecedented in American history and unmatched anywhere in the world. Even as the prisoner head count continues to rise, crime has stopped falling, and poor people and minorities still bear the brunt of both crime and punishment. When Brute Force Fails explains how we got into the current trap and how we can get out of it: to cut both crime and the prison population in half within a decade. Mark Kleiman demonstrates that simply locking up more people for lengthier terms is no longer a workable crime-control strategy. But, says Kleiman, there has been a revolution--largely unnoticed by the press--in controlling crime by means other than brute-force incarceration: substituting swiftness and certainty of punishment for randomized severity, concentrating enforcement resources rather than dispersing them, communicating specific threats of punishment to specific offenders, and enforcing probation and parole conditions to make community corrections a genuine alternative to incarceration. As Kleiman shows, "zero tolerance" is nonsense: there are always more offenses than there is punishment capacity. But, it is possible--and essential--to create focused zero tolerance, by clearly specifying the rules and then delivering the promised sanctions every time the rules are broken. Brute-force crime control has been a costly mistake, both socially and financially. Now that we know how to do better, it would be immoral not to put that knowledge to work.

Product Details :

Genre Book : Political Science
Author Book : Mark A. R. Kleiman
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release Book : 2009-08-17
Download Book : 256 Pages
ISBN-10 : 1400831261


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In Drugs and Drug Policy: What Everyone Needs to Know Mark A. R. Kleiman, Jonathan P. Caulkins, and Angela Hawken will provide a comprehensive introduction to domestic drug policy. They will address topics ranging from the basic biology of drug addiction, to the rationale behind drug policies and moves to legalize drugs, approaches to enforcement, drug abuse prevention, treatment, drug-related crime, prevalence of use, medical benefits of drugs, pricing of drugs, international policy, the connection between trafficking and terrorism, and the socio-cultural elements of drug policy.

Product Details :

Genre Book : Medical
Author Book : Mark A.R. Kleiman
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Book : 2011-07-13
Download Book : 234 Pages
ISBN-10 : 9780199764518


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Drug-taking and drug control are alike; both are often done to excess. Against Excess shows how we can limit the damage done by drugs and the damage done by drug policies.

Product Details :

Genre Book : Drug control
Author Book : Mark A. Kleiman
Publisher :
Release Book : 1993-07-06
Download Book : 482 Pages
ISBN-10 : STANFORD:36105016879996


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But Creating Born Criminals is much more than a look at the past. It is an exploration of the role of biological explanation as a form of discourse and of its impact upon society. While The Bell Curve and other recent books have stopped short of making eugenic recommendations, their contentions point toward eugenic conclusions, and people familiar with the history of eugenics can hear in them its echoes. Rafter demonstrates that we need to know how eugenic reasoning worked in the past and that we must recognize the dangers posed by the dominance of a theory that interprets social problems in biological terms and difference as biological inferiority.

Product Details :

Genre Book : Social Science
Author Book : Nicole Hahn Rafter
Publisher : University of Illinois Press
Release Book : 1997
Download Book : 284 Pages
ISBN-10 : 025206741X


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Product Details :

Genre Book : Executives
Author Book : Hunkar Ozyasar
Publisher : Peacock Books
Release Book : 2008
Download Book : 296 Pages
ISBN-10 : 8124801576


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Why do weak states resist threats of force from the United States, especially when history shows that this superpower carries out its ultimatums? Cheap Threats upends conventional notions of power politics and challenges assumptions about the use of compellent military threats in international politics. Drawing on an original dataset of US compellence from 1945 to 2007 and four in-depth case studies—the Cuban Missile Crisis, the 2011 confrontation with Libya, and the 1991 and 2003 showdowns with Iraq—Dianne Pfundstein Chamberlain finds that US compellent threats often fail because threatening and using force became comparatively “cheap” for the United States after the Cold War. Becoming the world’s only superpower and adopting a new light-footprint model of war, which relied heavily on airpower and now drones, have reduced the political, economic, and human costs that US policymakers face when they go to war. Paradoxically, this lower-cost model of war has cheapened US threats and fails to signal to opponents that the United States is resolved to bear the high costs of a protracted conflict. The result: small states gamble, often unwisely, that the United States will move on to a new target before achieving its goals. Cheap Threats resets the bar for scholars and planners grappling with questions of state resolve, hegemonic stability, effective coercion, and other issues pertinent in this new era of US warfighting and diplomacy.

Product Details :

Genre Book : Political Science
Author Book : Dianne Pfundstein Chamberlain
Publisher : Georgetown University Press
Release Book : 2016-04-15
Download Book : 288 Pages
ISBN-10 : 9781626162839


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The attacks of 9/11 led to a war on Iraq, although there was neither tangible evidence that the nation's leader, Saddam Hussein, was linked to Osama bin Laden nor proof of weapons of mass destruction. Why, then, did the Iraq war garner so much acceptance in the United States during its primary stages? Mass Deception argues that the George W. Bush administration manufactured public support for the war on Iraq. Scott A. Bonn introduces a unique, integrated, and interdisciplinary theory called "critical communication" to explain how and why political elites and the news media periodically create public panics that benefit both parties. Using quantitative analysis of public opinion polls and presidential rhetoric pre- and post-9/11 in the news media, Bonn applies the moral panic concept to the Iraq war. He critiques the war and occupation of Iraq as violations of domestic and international law. Finally, Mass Deception connects propaganda and distortion efforts by the Bush administration to more general theories of elite deviance and state crime.

Product Details :

Genre Book : Social Science
Author Book : Scott A. Bonn
Publisher : Rutgers University Press
Release Book : 2010-06-17
Download Book : 210 Pages
ISBN-10 : 9780813549965


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In asymmetric interstate conflicts, great powers have the capability to coerce weak states by threatening their survival—but not vice versa. It is therefore the great power that decides whether to escalate a conflict into a crisis by adopting a coercive strategy. In practice, however, the coercive strategies of the U.S. have frequently failed. In Coercion, Survival and War Phil Haun chronicles 30 asymmetric interstate crises involving the US from 1918 to 2003. The U.S. chose coercive strategies in 23 of these cases, but coercion failed half of the time: most often because the more powerful U.S. made demands that threatened the very survival of the weak state, causing it to resist as long as it had the means to do so. It is an unfortunate paradox Haun notes that, where the U.S. may prefer brute force to coercion, these power asymmetries may well lead it to first attempt coercive strategies that are expected to fail in order to justify the war it desires. He concludes that, when coercion is preferred to brute force there are clear limits as to what can be demanded. In such cases, he suggests, U.S. policymakers can improve the chances of success by matching appropriate threats to demands, by including other great powers in the coercive process, and by reducing a weak state leader's reputational costs by giving him or her face-saving options.

Product Details :

Genre Book : Political Science
Author Book : Phil Haun
Publisher : Stanford University Press
Release Book : 2015-07-01
Download Book : 288 Pages
ISBN-10 : 9780804795074


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This book by Kaplan and Vekhter brings together the molecular world of the chemist with the condensed matter world of the physicist. Prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union, chemists in the West devoted lit to relationships between molecular electronic structure and tle attention solid-state vibronic phenomena. Treating quantum mechanical problems wherein the adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation fails was done by "brute force. " With bigger and better computers available in the West, molecular orbital calculations were done on observed and conceived static structures with little concern for any cooperativity of vibrational behavior that might connect these states. While it had long been understood in the West that situations do occur in which different static structures are found for molecules that have identical or nearly identical electronic structures, little attention had been paid to understanding the vibrational states that could connect such structures. It was easier to calculate the electronic structure observed with several possible distortions than to focus on ways to couple electronic and vibrational behavior. In the former Soviet Union, computational power was not as acces sible as in the West. Much greater attention, therefore, was devoted to conserving computational time by considering fundamental ways to han dle the vibrational connectivity between degenerate or nearly degenerate electronic states.

Product Details :

Genre Book : Science
Author Book : Michael D. Kaplan
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Book : 2012-12-06
Download Book : 427 Pages
ISBN-10 : 9781461518594